Wednesday, May 13, 2015

New Testament Lessons 1-10

New Testament-Lesson 1

General Info

New Testament means New Covenant, Contract or Will

It was written in Greek, a few verses in Aramaic

27 Books, 9 Authors, 

8 Authors- Jewish, 1 Author- Greek- Luke

260 Chapters

Luke wrote the most part of New Testament [volume wise]- 28%, Paul wrote 23%

27 books were written over a span of 50 years [45-96 AD]

Divisions of the New Testament- 

1. Gospels- Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
2. Book of History-Acts
3. Pauline Epistles/Letters-13-
Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon
4. General Epistles/Letters-8- Hebrews, James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, Jude
5. Book of Revelation


New Testament- Lesson 2

 4 Gospel Writers

Matthew- Earlier a Tax Collector; one of the first 12 disciples chosen by Jesus; also called Levi [in Mark & Luke], son of Alphaeus [Mark 2:14]

Mark- John Mark [Acts 12:12], son of Mary, who had a house in Jerusalem where people gathered for prayer; cousin of Barnabas [Colossians 4:10]; accompanied Paul and Barnabas on Paul's 1st missionary journey; spiritual son & interpreter for Peter.

Luke- A Greek physician; missionary companion of Paul from 2nd missionary journey to Paul's final imprisonment in Rome.

John- One of the first 12 disciples chosen by Jesus; he was the son of Zebedee and Salome; his brother was James, another of Jesus' chosen disciples.

The Gospels of  Matthew, Mark & Luke are called the Synoptic [meaning seeing together] Gospels, because they are similar. The Gospel of John is different.

Almost 91% of Mark's Gospel is contained in Matthew and almost 53% of Mark's Gospel is found in Luke.

Matthew, the former Hebrew tax collector wrote for the Hebrew mind.

Mark writes for the Roman mind.
Luke writes with the Greek mentality in view.
John interprets the facts of Jesus' life.


New Testament- Lesson 3

Gospel Of Matthew

Author- Matthew, apostle of Jesus Christ

[others say- anonymous author, a well learned Jew, who drew on three main sources to compose his gospel: the Gospel of Mark and other writings called the Q source and the M source.]

Written to Greek speaking Jewish Christians probably sometime between 50-70 AD.

Theme- Jesus is the Jewish Messiah sent by God to fulfill Old Testament prophecy

Key Word- Jesus the King; Jesus the Messiah

Key Verses- 

1. Simon Peter answered and said, "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God." Jesus answered and said to him, "Blessed are you, Simon Bar-Jonah, for flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but My Father who is in heaven. And I also say to you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build My church, and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it. And I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven." (Matthew 16:16-19)

2. And Jesus came and spoke to them, saying, "All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth. Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all things that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age." Amen. (Matthew 28:18-20) 

5 Great Discourses found in Matthew- Ch. 5-7, Ch.10, Ch.13, Ch.18, Ch.24-25


New Testament- Lesson 4

Gospel Of Mark

Author- John Mark 

First mention of Mark is in Acts 12:12; son of Mary, who had a house in Jerusalem where people gathered for prayer; Acts 12:25- Mark accompanied Paul and Barnabas; Acts 13:5- Mark helped Paul and Barnabas in their 1st missionary journey; Acts 13:13- Mark left them while at Perga and returned to Jerusalem; Acts 15:36-39- Paul and Barnabas had an argument regarding Mark because Mark had deserted them earlier; Barnabas took Mark and went to Cyprus; Colossians 4:10- Mark reappears in Paul's letter to Colossians; By the end of Paul's life, Mark fully regained Paul's favour. 1 Peter 5:13- The Apostle Peter mentions Mark as his spiritual son.

Written to Gentile Christians, probably in the church at Rome, sometime between 50-60 AD.

Theme- Jesus, the Servant Son of God & Messiah who died as a ransom for sinners.

Key Word- Jesus the Servant Son of God

Key Verses- 

1. When He had called the people to Himself, with His disciples also, He said to them, Whoever desires to come after Me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow Me. For whoever desires to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for My sake and the gospel's will save it. For what will it profit a man if he gains the whole world, and loses his own soul? Or what will a man give in exchange for his soul? (Mark 8:34-37)

2. Yet it shall not be so among you; but whoever desires to become great among you shall be your servant. And whoever of you desires to be first shall be slave of all. For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many. (Mark 10:43-45)


New Testament- Lesson 5

Gospel of Luke

Author- Luke, a gentile Physician & missionary companion, friend & fellow worker of Apostle Paul from 2nd missionary journey. Also wrote the book of Acts.

Written sometime between 60-80 AD to Theophilus [probably an influential Roman official/other wealthy person who became a Christian]; meant for all believers too.

Theme- Jesus, the Son of Man & Messiah, whose life, death and resurrection make salvation available to all.

Key Words- Jesus, the Son of Man; the Messiah

Key Verse- ...for the Son of Man has come to seek and to save that which was lost." (Luke 19:10)


New Testament- Lesson 6

Gospel Of John

Author- John, Apostle of Jesus Christ

He also wrote the epistles 1 John, 2 John, 3 John & the book of Revelation.

Written to Gentile believers & seeking unbelievers sometime between 80-96 AD.

Theme- Jesus is the Word, the Messiah who gives eternal life & the Son of God who reveals the Father

Key Word- Believe ......but these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in His name. (John 20:31)

Key Verses- 

1. But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, to those who believe in His name... (John 1:12)

2. For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life. For God did not send His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved. (John 3:16, 17)


New Testament- Lesson 7

Book of Acts 

Author- Luke, the Physician, who also wrote the Gospel of Luke.

Written from Rome in 63 AD to Theophilus  and to all believers.

Theme- The rapid spread of the Gospel from Jerusalem to the whole Roman empire and thereafter to other parts of the world after the Holy Spirit was given at Pentecost.

1st 7 Chapters- Church among the Jews

Next 5 Chapters- Church in transition from Jews to Gentiles
Last 16 Chapters- Church among the Gentiles

Key Word- Empowered for witness

Key Verses- 

1. But you shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be witnesses to Me in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth.

(Acts 1:8)

2. And they continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, in the breaking of bread, and in prayers. (Acts 2:42)


New Testament- Lesson 8


Author- Apostle Paul
When Paul wrote the letter, he was at Corinth on his 3rd missionary journey (57-58 AD). He greatly desired to visit the Roman church. However he could not go to Rome because he felt he must personally deliver the collection taken from the Gentile churches for the poverty stricken Christians of Jerusalem. So instead of going to Rome, he sent a letter to prepare the Christians there for his intended visit in connection with a mission to Spain.

Written to the Church/churches in Rome which was predominantly Gentile.

During the time of the Apostles, there were Jews living in Rome who accepted Christ as Savior and through them many Romans came to Christ and churches were established. Chapter 16 suggests there were 5 house churches in the city. [16:5, 10, 11, 14, 15]

Theme- God's plan of salvation for all people

Key Word- The righteousness of God

Key Verses- 

1. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God to salvation for everyone who believes, for the Jew first and also for the Greek. For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith; as it is written, "The just shall live by faith." (Romans 1:16, 17)

2. But now the righteousness of God apart from the law is revealed, being witnessed by the Law and the Prophets, even the righteousness of God, through faith in Jesus Christ, to all and on all who believe. For there is no difference; for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, being justified freely by His grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus... (Romans 3:21-24)


New Testament- Lesson 9

1 Corinthians

Author- Apostle Paul [written from Ephesus]

Written to believers in the Church at Corinth where divisions and immorality were prevalent. This Church was established during Paul's second missionary journey in 52 AD.

Corinth was the chief city of Greece with 12 temples. People were very immoral. To Corinthianize means to practice sexual immorality. This letter was written in 57 AD probably 6 months before the 2nd letter to this church. 

Theme- Paul writes to correct sinful practices and refute false doctrine- factions, sexual immorality, lawsuits among believers, misuse of spiritual gifts, marital difficulties etc.

Key Word- Correction of carnal living

Key Verses-

1. Or do you not know that your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and you are not your own? For you were bought at a price; therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God's. (1 Corinthians 6:19, 20)

2. Therefore let him who thinks he stands take heed lest he fall. No temptation has overtaken you except such as is common to man; but God is faithful, who will not allow you to be tempted beyond what you are able, but with the temptation will also make the way of escape, that you may be able to bear it. (1 Corinthians 10:12, 13)


New Testament- Lesson 10

2 Corinthians

Author- Apostle Paul

Written to the Church at Corinth & to Christians throughout Achaia [Roman province comprising all of Greece south of Macedonia]. Written from Macedonia during Paul's 3rd missionary journey, probably in 57 AD. Messenger was Titus along with 2 others. This letter is the most biographical of Paul's letters with less of doctrine.

Theme- Paul encourages the Corinthian believers to be reconciled with him and reject false teachers who are challenging his authority and creating dissension in the church.

Key Word- Paul's defence of his ministry

Key Verses- Open your heart to us.  We have wronged no one, we have corrupted no 

one, we have defrauded no one. (2 corinthians 7:2)

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